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InläggPostat: fre 09-12-18 21:23 
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http://delphi.com/manufacturers/auto/po ... -fuel-inj/

http://delphi.com/pdf/techpapers/2009-01-0615.pdf

Citat:
Delphi Multec® 3.5 Heated Tip PortFuel Injector

Bild

The Delphi Multec® 3.5 Heated Tip (HT) Port Fuel Injector is part of Delphi's family of gasoline port fuel injectors. It has an integrated heating device that enables engine cold starting with ethanol fuel.

Because of ethanol's low Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) and high flash point, fuel heating becomes necessary to enable the formation of an ignitable mixture at low temperatures. The Delphi Multec 3.5HT Injector features an innovative concept that increases the temperature of the ethanol fuel for cold start ignition. An electrical current supplied to two heater terminals in the injector connector is transferred to a resistor in the injector body. Heat generated by the resistor is transferred to the fuel through the injector body. The simplified design provides customers with excellent ignition reliability and high quality.

Benefits
Eliminates the need for auxiliary gasoline cold-start fuel systems on vehicle applications that use E100 fuel
Enables E100 cold starting below 18° C without the need to add gasoline
No pre-crank heating time is required unlike competitive heated rail injection systems
Helps reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon-monoxide (CO) emissions to help manufacturers meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency cold start testing at 20° C (EPA 75)

Typical Applications
The Delphi Multec 3.5 Heated Tip Port Fuel Injector is designed specifically for port fuel injection engine applications that operate on E100 ethanol fuel. The injector is also compatible with other ethanol- and methanol-blend fuel systems, such as NAE10, E24, E85 and M21.

Availability
The Delphi Multec 3.5 Heated Tip Port Fuel Injector is scheduled to begin production in mid 2011. Engineering samples are available to automotive manufacturer customers. Contact Delphi for further information.

Bild
Heater and fuel control solenoids shown in the Delphi Multec 3.5 Heated Tip Port Fuel Injector

Performance Advantages
The Delphi Multec 3.5 Heated Tip Port Fuel Injector is based on Delphi's Multec® 3.5 Extended Tip Injector, which has been in production since 2006 and offers proven quality and reliability. The Delphi 3.5 Injector family provides excellent linear range, spray performance, and tip leakage. The injectors are also robust to fuel plugging and can meet a wide range of individual customer design specifications including spray geometry, electrical connectors and a variety of packaging requirements.

Additionally, the simplified design of the Delphi Multec 3.5HT Injector and Delphi's network of low cost, close-to-the-customer manufacturing sites provide customers with excellent quality and high value.


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InläggPostat: fre 09-12-18 21:33 
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it was already posted here before.

those injectors will be aviable in 2010-2011. maybe.

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InläggPostat: fre 09-12-18 22:17 
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i just thinking...

1. there is no big difference, what to heat: fuel or air
2. pins on heated injector are tiny - power of heater element is not very big

it can be easy, cheap and quick sollution - install little individual air heaters just before injectors, with temp. lower than ethanol or gasoline self-ignition.

what power do we need to add +70...+150C to air flow 10-20 kg/hour?

this heater can be very cheap - from metal wire, and installation is very asy too - drill a hole in intake collector, insert heater and seal it.

and unlike to the heater after the injector, installation of this heater much easy and it will not interfere to spraying of fuel at hot engine.

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InläggPostat: lör 09-12-19 12:22 
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Robot skrev:
it was already posted here before.


Sorry I missed that, but it could benefit of a separate thread than.

Did you see/read the tech paper as well? It has most useful information, http://delphi.com/pdf/techpapers/2009-01-0615.pdf just like the Bosch flex start-study

Obormot skrev:
those injectors will be aviable in 2010-2011. maybe.


Yes a pity we need to wait, and they will probably not suitable for retrofitting in all cars, but the concept has some advantages compared to heating the fuel rail (like the Bosch flex start):
Citat:
• Significant electrical energy is required to heat
the entire quantity of fuel in a short amount of
time
• Pre-crank warm-up times are approximately 60
seconds at -5°C
• Large radiant heat loss area
• Heated fuel rises to the top of the rail
• First injections consist of ambient temperature
fuel
• Requires pre-crank PCM turn-on strategy and
starter control


Robot skrev:
i just thinking...

1. there is no big difference, what to heat: fuel or air


I think that there are differences.

When the fuel is heated you will get fuel vapor much quicker as when the air needs to heat the fuel first even if the amount of energy is equal.
If it the spray hits a cold engine part it will get much harder for the air to make it evaporate (like heating water with a föhn).

Warming the air has the advantage that you can heat it as much as you like, the fuel can only be heated to just under its boiling point under pressure in the fuel-rail.

Robot skrev:
2. pins on heated injector are tiny - power of heater element is not very big


Yes I noted that to, however we do not know if they are operating at 12V or at a higher voltage.

Anyway according to the tech paper the power is enough to do this:
Citat:
Figure 10 shows the resultant increases in the injector’s outlet stream temperatures (measured with thermos couple located in the fuel stream) above ambient (20°C for the following graphs) with static
ethanol flow (3.4g/s) and 100% heater power.


To heat 3,4g/s of ethanol which has a specific heat of 2.44 J/gK with 20° you would need 3,4g/s * 20K * 2,44 J/gK = 165,92 J/S so they are at least using 166 watt each x 4 = 664 watt, which is not that little, especially if you realize that this is measured in the fuel steam so heat losses from the injector to the surrounding parts, air etc is not included.

At -5°C and with 94% ethanol and 6% water the engine starts after 2,9s cranking without preheating, with 6s preheating it even starts after 1,8s cranking. Also consumption and emissions after the cold start are shown to be much lower according to the paper. I think that is quite convincing that the system works quite good.

It would be interesting to know at how much lower temperatures the system would be able to start a care on pure ethanol. For E85 I think this should be enough already for almost any cold-start.

/Aryan

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InläggPostat: lör 09-12-19 12:35 
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For retofitting on an existing car I think a electric heater and a fuel circulation pump that circulates and heat the fuel in the fuel rail (in a small loop) would be almost as good as heated injectors and I think a little better than the Bosch flex start, but it would take longer before you can start compaired to the heated injectors depending on the power of the heater.

/Aryan

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InläggPostat: lör 09-12-19 13:34 
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hello!

i think too that heated injector - best solution.

1. greatest advantage of heated injector is heating of very small portion of fuel - so we can do it very quickly and with very low power.

when we heating all fuel rail, even with Bosh system, we have to heat big piece of steel, and 100-200 ml of fuel just before cranking, and if we want to do it fast we need very powerful heaters.

and first portions of fuel are still cold - it located is in injector and not heated with all fuel in ramp.

2. if heater element located after the injector's valve, we absolutely not worry about boiling of fuel - it will be even better, so we can give much more heat to fuel and otain cold-starts with lower outside temperatures.

3. injector looks almost like usual - minimal changes needed for car producers.

BUT:

1. i can't buy it now and i suspect it will be aviable for OEMs only, at least for the first year.

2. i think price will be much bigger, than price of usual injectors.

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InläggPostat: fre 09-12-25 16:51 
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I think the Bosch system is better because they are using cheap glowplugs that can be the same for all cars, and can deliver substantial heat in a short time.
(The long preheating time promised by Delphi, 60 secs in -8 deg(!), together with the tiny connector pins seen in the picture, only confirms this...)
Drawback with Bosh is a special fuel rail though, but they are cheaper to develop and make for each car than to develop special injector for every car...

And as discussed before, heating fuel is much more effective than the air since we want the energy to go into the fuel in the end anyway.
Heating air is only giving an extra loss of energytransmission and is difficult also in the first place since all energy have to be delivered and transferred to the air instantly instead of during a longer "glowing period" before the start.

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InläggPostat: fre 09-12-25 17:34 
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cost (for producer) of usual injector and of heated injector are almost the same.

volume of changes for car producer are smaller for heated injectors - we need only new control module.

for heated fuel rail we need new fuel rail and 4 heaters, and control unit.

and time of preheating for hot injectors are smaller, and they can be used without preheating.

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InläggPostat: fre 09-12-25 17:49 
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With cost I mean new part numbers and the addition of the PTC and new 4-pole connector to a large number of existing injectors.
Dont forget that also the injector connector on wire harness needs to be upgraded in a aftermarket solution.
And I doubt that the total cost of heated 4-6 injectors with electrical supply and all will be lower than the std glowplugs in FR with a real simple control unit, basically a thermostat is all that is needed, which also gives the possibility to accumulating heat enough to also supply the engine with warm fuel all the time until coolant come up and can take over as heat source during driving.

Time of preheating seems longer with these injectors compared to the Flexstart.

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InläggPostat: sön 09-12-27 21:42 
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As an after market solution, I think the combination of an external thermostatic fuel heater plus a small circulation pump that can circulate the preheated fuel through the fuel rail would be the best and simplest "bolt on" solution.

The only problem I can foresee is that some fuelrails would need to be equiped with an extra connection for the heater recirculation on some dead end fuel rail equiped cars but i suppose that would be a lot easier to make an extra fuel "output" connector compaired to make a new fuel rail with heaters or replace the injectors with heated ones?

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InläggPostat: mån 09-12-28 13:13 
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karlmb skrev:
...std glowplugs in FR with a real simple control unit,

How would that simple control unit look like? I have been thinking of building a new fuelrail with positions for glowplugs, but have been worried for controlling of the glowplugs.

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InläggPostat: mån 09-12-28 15:46 
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i just thinking...

those injectors called "heated tip injectors"

so maybe there is a possibility to install heated tip onto usual injector?

http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?wo=2000052323

Bild

HEATED TIP FUEL INJECTOR WITH ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER
Abstract: A heated tip fuel injector (156A) includes a housing (112) having a bore formed therein for receiving fuel under pressure; a valve seat (34) mounted at one end of the housing, the valve seat including an orifice; a needle valve (30) having one end mounted to an armature (24) and another end which contacts the valve seat (34) to close off fuel outflow from the bore and which is lifted from the valve seat to inject fuel; a heater (50) disposed in the housing upstream of the valve seat (34) and extending around the needle valve (30); and at least one flow disturbing element (192A) disposed upstream of the heater (50). The flow-disturbing element (192A) enhances heat transfer from the heater to the fuel.

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InläggPostat: mån 09-12-28 19:43 
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I have been thinking about putting a high frequency alternating current on the injector coil, that would create heat that should heat up the fuel.

As long as the coil does not get too hot (and it is well cooled by the fuel) and the current is not so high that the coil burns hrough right away I cannot see why that should not work?

ARyan

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aryan skrev:
I have been thinking about putting a high frequency alternating current on the injector coil, that would create heat that should heat up the fuel.

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erikn skrev:
karlmb skrev:
...std glowplugs in FR with a real simple control unit,

How would that simple control unit look like? I have been thinking of building a new fuelrail with positions for glowplugs, but have been worried for controlling of the glowplugs.


Well, my "control unit" is simply a relay that I switch on when I will coldstart.
No need for temperature regulation since my two glowplugs are self controlling and reduces current when temperature rises.
I have them on the fuel inlet to the CE-injection head but if in a FR, I would add a thermostat that can switch off when temp is enough in the FR, and can give a signal to the driver that a startatempt is possible (like in a diesel).
The only advanced function I can come to think on is to have some memory that recalls if the engine have been run recently for any longer period and therefore not need any electrical preheating.
Bosch flexstart is probably not much more than this...

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