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Intressant tycker jag. 100% metanol är väll ännu lite svårare att kallstarta än 100% etanol?

http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/9100 ... SeekPage=x

Citat:
EPA/AA/CTAB/89-05
Technical Report
Cold Starting A Neat Methanol (M100) Vehicle
With Long Duration Spark Ignition
by
Robert I. Bruetsch
June 1989
NOTICE

Technical Reports do not necessarily represent final EPA
decisions or positions. They are intended to present technical
analysis of issues using data which are currently available.
The purpose in the release of such reports is to facilitate the
exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments which may form the basis for a final EPA
decision, position or regulatory action.

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Air and Radiation
Office of Mobile Sources
Emission Control Technology Division
Control Technology and Applications Branch
2565 Plymouth Road
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
<xref image="9100USM5.TIF|V3|2011:04:21:20:33:50.00|21923|0"> image: </xref>
-------
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

ANN ARBOR. MICHIGAN 48105
OFFICE OF
AIR AND RADIATION
JUL 31 1989

MEMORANDUM


SUBJECT: Exemption From Peer and Administrative Review
FROM:
Karl H.
Control
Hellman, Chief
Technology and
Applications Branch
TO:
Charles L. Gray, Jr., Director
Emission Control Technology Division
The attached report entitled "Cold Starting A Neat
Methanol (M100) Vehicle With Long Duration Spark Ignition,"
EPA/AA/CTAB/89-05, describes the evaluation of a novel high
energy ignition strategy originally developed for gasoline
combustion stability applied to the challenge of cold starting
neat methanol at low ambient temperatures.

Since this report is concerned only with the presentation
of data and its analysis and does not involve matters of policy
or regulations, your concurrence is requested to waive
administrative review according to the policy outlined in your
directive of April 22, 1982.
Date; 7-
Concurrence:/,
arles L. Gr,ay/ Jr., Dir., ECTD
Nonconcurrence:
Date:
Charles L. Gray, Jr., Dir., ECTD

cc: E. Burger, ECTD
<xref image="9100USM6.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:39.00|29847|0"> image: </xref>
-------
Table of Contents

Page
Number
I. Summary 1
II. Background 1
III. System Description 2
IV. Starting Procedure 5
V. Test Results 6
VI. Discussion 8
VII. Acknowledgments 9
VIII.References 10

APPENDIX A - LDSI System Schematic A-l
APPENDIX B - Pulse Characteristics and Circuitry .... B-l
APPENDIX C - Vehicle Specifications and Modifications
for M100 C-l
APPENDIX D - Emission Test Results D-l
<xref image="9100USM7.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:40.00|12347|0"> image: </xref>
-------
I. Summary

A test program was devised at EPA's Motor Vehicle Emission
Laboratory to evaluate the Nissan long duration spark ignition
(LDSI) system on an MlOO test vehicle to determine whether cold
starting neat methanol at low ambient temperatures can be
improved. Modifications were made to the vehicle's ignition
system and stock cold start injectors were utilized.
Successful cold starts were obtained down to 20°F (-7°C).

II. Background

Nissan initially developed this system to investigate the
relationship between spark-ignition characteristics and
combustion stability in a gasoline-fueled engine. They
examined spark current, energy, and duration parameters and
found that lengthening the spark discharge duration is
particularly effective in achieving stabilized combustion.[1]

More specifically, a longer spark duration was found to
provide a continued supply of electrical energy to the mixture
around the spark plug gap. A longer spark duration promotes
more rapid flame initiation and faster flame kernel growth.
The length of spark duration is generally regarded as the
period from ignition to the onset of combustion pressure rise.
Since energy is continually input as the flame kernel grows,
the occurrence of misfire cycles should be suppressed in the
vicinity of the advance limit for ignition timing and the heat
release delay time should be shortened. The result should be a
reduction in combustion fluctuations, thereby making it
possible to expand the stable combustion zone and fire leaner
mixtures. Combustion stability is essential for reduced NOx
emissions and improved fuel economy in a lean burn engine. It
is also beneficial for good combustion in cold weather and for
better response in transient operating conditions. Lengthening
spark duration should also expand the stable E6R rate limit.[2]

In 1987, General Motors Research Labs published a paper
describing a development program in which they claimed to
achieve unassisted cold starts with a UPS direct injection
stratified charge (DISC) engine at ambient temperatures as low
as -20°F with MlOO and other alcohol fuels. The special
characteristics optimized for this engine included high
compression ratio, a multiple discharge spark system, in
cylinder air motion and direct injection.[3]
<xref image="9100USM8.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:42.00|61666|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-2-


The Nissan LDSI system is somewhat different in design and
operation than the ignition system used in the UPS engine
tested by GM, but is similar in its improved spark energy
characteristics for cold starting alcohol fuels.[4] Improved
cold start performance of M100 was the main objective of this
test program, so it was decided to apply the Nissan LDSI to a
high compression MIOO-fueled engine without direct injection,
stratified charge, or optimized air motion, to evaluate its
component contribution to the improvement of low ambient
temperature neat methanol cold start performance.

III. System Description

The Nissan LDSI system consists of a power unit containing
spark duration control circuitry and a high voltage output, an
ignition relay, and a duration control box which allows spark
duration to be varied from 4 to 10 milliseconds. Further
lengthening of spark duration is believed by Nissan to cause
fuel economy to deteriorate because of the increase in electric
power consumption. Spark plugs may also wear out sooner due to
electrode erosion. [2] When power to the system is cut off, the
test vehicle runs on the stock ignition system with spark
duration on the order of 1.5 milliseconds. A schematic of the
Nissan LDSI hardware is shown in Appendix A. The control
circuit in the LDSI power unit was treated as a "black box" in
the evaluation, but is believed by EPA to include a DC-DC
converter which enables the spark duration to be varied.[5]

The LDSI power unit has a four-pin connector in addition
to the high voltage output. One pin is connected to the
battery or other +12V supply. A second pin is connected to
ground. A third pin is provided to receive input from the
vehicle ignition pulse generator, in this case a magnetic
Hall-Effect transistorized crank position sensor system. The
fourth pin can be used as an output to a tachometer if required.

An additional pulse interface circuit was developed to
mate the Nissan LDSI system to the test vehicle's ignition
coil, distributor and pulse generator. The vehicle's ignition
pulse was measured and recorded at 850 rpm (idle). A typical
printout of the pulse characteristics and the pulse interface
circuit are shown in Appendix B. The pulse printout data are
displayed in graphic form as plots of voltage (mV) versus time
(ms). These plots can be used to determine.the pulse width and
the pulse frequency of a given engine condition as produced by
the vehicle's ignition pulse generator.

The pulse interface circuit was developed for use with the
vehicle's ignition timing to regulate the pulse frequency or
duty cycle of the LDSI, i.e., no delay circuit or other
rpin-dependent circuit was incorporated into the pulse interface
circuit.
<xref image="9100USM9.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:43.00|72574|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-3-


The Nissan LDSI only accepts a 5-volt square-wave ignition
pulse nominally 4 to 5 milliseconds wide. This is based on an
ignition coil primary circuit current of approximately 5
amperes and an ignition coil secondary circuit current of
approximately 40 to 50 milliamperes.[6] The test vehicle's
ignition pulse was detected (located on the distributor) at
idle (roughly 850 rpm) and at 1600 rpm using a Norland Digital
Oscilloscope and printer. The pulse interface circuit was then
designed to transform these pulse characteristics into the
reguired 5V sguare-wave for the LDSI.

The pulse interface circuit contains three integrated
circuits: IC1, IC2, and IC3.[7] IC1 and its associated
components (a metal oxide varistor, two diodes, and two
capacitors) drop the nominal 12 volts from the battery down to
5 volts to power the rest of the circuit. The metal oxide
varistor is a transient suppressor which protects the circuit
from damaging voltage spikes. The diodes protect the circuit
in case of accidental polarity reversal and the capacitors
filter the power supply.

IC2 and its components (two resistors and a capacitor)
form a voltage comparator. The two resistors make up a voltage
divider which provides IC2, an operational amplifier, with a
reference voltage.

Vr.f = (5)(1000) =1.79 volts
(1000+1800)

When the input voltage from the distributor pickup (pulse
generator) exceeds the reference, the voltage at the output of
IC2 switches from 0 volts to 5 volts.

The output of IC2 is connected to a monostable
multivibrator (IC3). A pull-down resistor ensures a relatively
low resistance path to ground for IC3 when the output of IC2 is
at a low level. When there is a low-to-high transition at the
"B" input of IC3, there is a positive-going pulse at the "Q"
output of IC3. The duration of the pulse is determined by
resistors R4 and R5 and capacitor C4:

tpui,. = In(2) x R x C = 4 msec

The pulse current is amplified by two transistors before
being output to the Nissan LDSI system.

A schematic of the entire vehicle ignition system as
modified for this test program is shown in Figure 1. A nominal
12 volts is sourced from the vehicle battery through fuses to
the ignition switch and ignition relay. The relay is also
connected to the other (coil) side of the ignition switch in
order to trigger the LDSI system and pulse interface circuit
<xref image="9100USMA.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:44.00|62174|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-4-
Figure 1
Modified Test Vehicle Ignition System Schematic
PULSE INTERFACE
CIRCUIT
LONG DURATION
SPARK IGNITION
(LDSI) SYSTEM
TACHOMETER
<xref image="9100USMB.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:45.00|13782|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-5-


with 12 volts when the vehicle's ignition key is turned on.
The rest of the ignition system operates the same as the stock
breakerless ignition system, except that the high voltage input
to the distributor is connected to the Nissan LDSI power unit
rather than the center post of the vehicle ignition coil. The
pulse generator signal is input to the pulse interface circuit
and transformed into a 5-volt square-wave 4 msec wide as
described above. Then, the pulse is input to the Nissan LDSI.
The high voltage output of the Nissan LDSI is then input to the
distributor and distributed to the spark plugs using the
vehicle's stock specification ignition timing (3°ATDC at 850
rpm, 24° BTDC at 4500 rpm).[8]

The test vehicle used for this program is a 1981
Volkswagen Rabbit modified for use of neat methanol (M100).
The engine displacement is 1.61 liters and the compression
ratio is 12.5:1. The vehicle was not equipped with a
catalyst. The equivalent test weight of the vehicle is 2500
Ibs. and the actual dynamometer horsepower is 7.7 HP. A more
complete description of the neat methanol test vehicle
specifications and modifications made to accommodate methanol
fuel are included in Appendix C.

A few aspects of the vehicle fueling system are
noteworthy. The vehicle is equipped with two cold start
enrichment valves which are temperature controlled and
electrically operated. These valves enrich the air/fuel
mixture at coolant temperatures below approximately 16°C
(60°F). They operate for a maximum of 8 seconds depending on
outside ambient temperature. The cold start valves are
controlled by the thermo-time switch. The thermo-time switch
supplies negative current (ground) to the cold start valves so
that they will inject fuel into the intake air distributor when
the starter is operated and the engine is cold. If the starter
is operated for longer than normal, the thermo-time switch cuts
off the cold start valves in order to prevent engine flooding.
All tests run in this program were performed at coolant
temperatures within the operable range of the thermo-time
switch (below 35°C). The vehicle's oxygen sensor works
according to specification with an idle mixture (CO content) of
2.0 to 3.0 volume percent.[8,9]

IV. Starting Procedure

The vehicle was initially cranked to start in increments
of 10 seconds, with the exception of a 15-second crank on the
first attempt at each temperature. If the vehicle did not
start, a pause of 15 seconds was taken to allow the starter to
cool. This cycle of crank and pause was repeated until 55
seconds of cranking time (5 start attempts) had elapsed.
<xref image="9100USMC.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:46.00|69698|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-6-
This procedure was originally developed for the protection of
the starter when using a 24-volt battery system.[10] The test
vehicle was returned to stock configuration for this test
program and used a 12-volt battery. Upon repeated starting
attempts it was found that if the vehicle didn't start on the
first attempt, the 12-volt battery was significantly discharged
such that the vehicle would not start or crank as well on
subsequent start attempts.

A new starting procedure was adopted which involved
cranking for 30 to 45 seconds with the throttle closed. If the
vehicle failed to start, a 15-second pause was taken and a
second start attempt was made by cranking for approximately 15
seconds. If no start occurred, the vehicle's battery (625 CCA)
was connected to a battery charger for 20 to 30 minutes and the
procedure was repeated. If the vehicle started, the driver was
instructed to throttle the engine in neutral, if necessary, to
keep it going and avoid stalling during pre-test idling.[11]

V. Test Results

Test results showed that increasing spark duration up to
10 milliseconds increases the spark energy to over 280 mj
(compared to 26 mJ at 1.5 ms spark duration), and enabled an
M100 vehicle to be cold started at ambient, coolant and oil
temperatures as low as 20°F (-7°C). Table 1 shows the results
of cold start testing around the temperatures which were
identified as representing the limits of the Nissan LDSI M100
cold starting capabilities.

The first test listed was merely a baseline test at room
temperature to see if the system was operable without relying
on the stock ignition system. This test confirmed that the
pulse circuit was designed correctly and that the Nissan LDSI
could start the vehicle just as well as the stock ignition
system can at 75°F. The "Cranking?" column in Table 1 is a
subjective measure developed to compare the cranking speed at
low temperatures to those at room temperature. Cranking rpm
was not measured for these determinations. A rating of "fast"
cranking speed is synonomous with the starter cranking speed at
room temperature with the stock ignition system (roughly 300
rpm). All other cranking speed ratings were ranked relative to
this. The vehicle was soaked overnight in MVEL's outdoor cold
box such that inlet air, coolant, and oil temperatures were all
within 1°F of each other, and the entire vehicle was at
temperatures below the lower limit of the Controlled
Environment Test Cell (CETC), i.e., below 20°F (-7°C). Several
starting attempts were made in the cold box prior to putting
the vehicle in the CETC for an attempted Federal Test Procedure
<xref image="9100USMD.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:48.00|69815|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-7-
Table l

Results of Cold Start Attempts With Long Duration
Spark Ignition On An MIOO-Fueled VW Rabbit
Air/H,0/Oil
Temperature
22
20
75 24



30 -1
-6
-7
18 -8

16 -9
Start?
(Yes/No)

Yes


Yes
Yes
Yes
No

No
Cranking?
(Fast/Slow)

Fast


Fast
Fast
Moderate




Slow

Very slow
Comments
Same performance as
stock ignition

Start after 28-second
crank; FTP aborted
in Bag 2 due to high
exhaust temperatures

Start after 15-second
crank; FTP aborted in
Bag 2 due to power
loss

Start after 15-second
crank; immediate stall;
failure to restart at
this temperature

Some firing

No firing; starter
failure on last attempt
<xref image="9100USME.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:49.00|17999|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-8-
(FTP). The vehicle did not start in the teens, but exhibited
some backfire and near-starts indicating that the temperature
was probably near (just below) the lower limitations of the
LDSI system. A 22°F (-6°C) start was obtained in the cold box
after a 15-second cranking period with a 10 ms spark duration.

At this point, it was decided to attempt a 20°F (-7°C) FTP
in . the CETC. The vehicle started at 20°F <-7°C) after 15
seconds of> cranking and almost immediately stalled. Subsequent
cranking attempts were unsuccessful as the battery quickly
discharged. The battery was recharged and another cold start
was attempted at 20°F <-7°C). This attempt failed as did the
next three iterations. Finally, with the ambient, coolant, and
oil temperatures raised slightly to 22°F (-6°C), the vehicle
started after 15 seconds of cranking, idled roughly for about 1
minute, and an FTP test was attempted. Driveability was poor,
but the vehicle achieved enough power to match the driver's
trace throughout Bag 1, including the acceleration to 57 MPH.
Immediately after the start of Bag 2, the vehicle exhibited a
power loss and had difficulty running at speeds over 5 MPH, let
alone matching the driver's trace. Approximately one-third of
the way through Bag 2, the CO alarm in the test cell sounded
and the test was aborted. Bag 1 of this test was analyzed and
found to be very high in emissions with 469 grams of CO and 406
grams of methanol emissions. Complete test results for this
and a subsequent attempt to perform an FTP test are contained
in Appendix D. Gasoline equivalent fuel economy was 10.6 MPG
for this one-bag test.

Several cold starts were again attempted at lower than
20°F (-7°C) temperatures to stretch the limitations of the LDSI
as an M100 cold start system. These attempts were again
unsuccessful. It was decided to try another FTP in the CETC at
a higher temperature, 30°F, in order to complete a successful
test which would still represent a significant improvement in
M100 cold startability. On this test, cranking time was almost
30 seconds, and driveability was again quite poor. However,
the vehicle exhibited no power loss throughout the test and did
not stall during idle periods. The exhaust temperatures rose
sharply during Bag 2, and it was decided to stop the test
because the rubber tailpipe boot which connects the vehicle to
the CVS emission analyzer began to melt. Bag 1 was again
analyzed and found to be much cleaner at 30°F (-1°C) than at
20°F (-7°C) with about one-half the CO and methanol emissions
of the colder test. Gasoline equivalent fuel economy improved
to 12.3 MPG in Bag 1 at 30°F.

VI. Discussion

The test results obtained here represent a significant
improvement in lowering the minimum ambient temperature at
which an MIOO-fueled vehicle can be cold started compared to
other methanol cold start programs previously and currently
being performed by EPA. With long duration spark ignition used
<xref image="9100USMF.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:50.00|77390|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-9-


as the only cold start system, M100 vehicle cold starts were
obtained down to 20°F <-7°C) where previously these vehicles
had difficulty being started at temperatures much below the
flashpoint of methanol, 52°F (11°C). There did not appear to
be any correlation between cranking time and ambient
temperature, though the same starting procedure was employed
upon each low ambient temperature cold start attempt.

The cold start emissions measured in Bag 1 of the FTP at
20°F and 30°F were quite high, particularly CO and methanol
emissions. The vehicle obtained 10.6 MPG at 20°F and 12.3 MPG
at 30°F over Bag 1 of the FTP on a gasoline-equivalent basis.

More extensive testing may be needed to determine why the
vehicle had difficulty completing the FTP at low ambient
temperatures.

The primary objective of the test program was the evaluate
cold startability of the LDSI system at low temperatures, and
this objective was accomplished. Optimization of warm-up
emissions performance was not an objective of this test program
since neither the LDSI system or any other control strategy was
employed to limit exhaust emissions under these operating
conditions. The warm-up (Bag 1) emissions are discussed here
because they are an important indicator of cold start and cold
transient combustion, and their measurement with M100 as the
fuel is a result not previously accomplished by EPA.

Future testing could include evaluation of the LDSI system
on other vehicles, emission testing in conjunction with a
catalyst and/or alternate cold start fueling strategies. The
ignition system could be tested in combination with other neat
methanol cold start systems under development such as an
ultrasonic fuel atomizer, direct injection, or a higher speed
starter. Further optimization of the long duration spark
ignition strategy itself, including alternate ignition timing
strategy development, may help achieve reliable cold starts at
ambient temperatures lower than previously accomplished.

VII. Acknow1edgments

The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Hiroki
Kawajiri of Nissan for supplying the LDSI system, Michael
Murphy of SDSB for the development of the LDSI pulse interface
circuit, James Garvey and Rodney Branham of TEB for performing
the exhaust emission testing and analysis, and Jennifer Criss
and Marilyn Alff of CTAB for word processing support and final
report preparation.
<xref image="9100USMG.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:52.00|65054|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-10-
VIII. References

1. "Stabilized Combustion in a Spark Ignited Engine
through a Long Spark Duration," Nakai, Meroji, Yashuhiko
Nakagawa, Kyugo Hamai, and Masazumi Sone, Nissan Motor Co.,
Ltd., SAE Paper 850075, International Congress & Exposition,
Detroit, MI, February 25 - March 1, 1985.

2. "A Study of the Relationship between Spark Duration
and Stability of Engine Combustion," Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.,
Hamai, Kyugo, Meroji Nakai, and Yasuhiko Nakegawa, JSAE Review,
Vol. 7, No. 1, April 1986.

3. "Unassisted Cold Starts to -29°C and Steady-State
Tests of a Direct-Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) Engine
Operated On Neat Alcohols," SAE Paper 872066, Siewart, R. W.
and E. G. Groff, International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and
Exposition, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA, November 2-5, 1987.

4. "EPIC—An Ignition System for Tomorrow's Engines,"
SAE Paper 840913, Clarke, B. C. and T. Canup, 31st Annual
Milwaukee Lecture Series, Milwaukee, WI, April 7, 14, and 21,
1988.

5. "Combustion Fluctuation Mechanism Involving
Cycle-To-Cycle Spark Ignition Variation Due to Gas Flow Motion
in S.I. Engines," Hamai, Kyugo, Hiroki Kawajiri, Takashi
Ishizuka, and Meroji Nakai, Twenty-First Symposium
(International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, 1986.

6. "Nissan Long Duration Spark Ignition System Wiring
Diagram," Kawajiri, H., Nissan Research and Development, Inc.,
facsimile to David Blair, U.S. EPA, Ann Arbor, MI, April 6,
1988.

7. "Description of 4 millisecond Pulse Circuit Used in
Methanol Cold Start Project," Murphy, Michael J., EPA/ECTD/SDSB
Memorandum to Robert I. Bruetsch, U.S. EPA, Ann Arbor, MI, June
14, 1989.

8. "1981 Volkswagen Rabbit Service Manual," Robert
Bentley, Inc., Cambridge, MA, 1982.

9. "Development of a Pure Methanol Fuel Car," Menrad,
Holger, Wenpo Lee, and Winfried Bernhardt, Volkswagenwerk AG,
SAE Paper 770790, Passenger Car Meeting, Detroit, MI, September
26-30, 1977.

10. "Effects of Cranking Speed and Finely Atomized Fuel
Delivery on Minimum Cold Starting Temperature of a Methanol-
Fueled (M100) Vehicle," Blair, David M. , EPA/AA/CTAB-88-04, May
1988.
<xref image="9100USMH.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:53.00|55132|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-11-
VIII. References (cont'd)

11. "Test Plan: Echlin Precision Ignition Control
(EPIC) Evaluation on an M100 VW Rabbit," Bruetsch, Robert I.,
EPA/ECTD/CTAB Memorandum to Charles L. Gray, Jr., U.S. EPA, Ann
Arbor, MI, November 28, 1988.
<xref image="9100USMI.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:54.00|6718|0"> image: </xref>
-------
13
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<xref image="9100USMJ.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:55.00|20217|0"> image: </xref>
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APPENDIX B
PX » 101.22 ns




OX * 112.31 mS




POX » 11.550 HS
PY » ie0.i34 mV




OY « -32.227 mV




PQY « -102.37 nV
PN » 10122




ON « 11251




PQN » 1155
33'23/39 99= OS -01
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•715
OY * -30.752





PQY = -206.6d
r?V
C f: a « 1 ' 7 C





CM » 11225





PQN » 1055
33-'23--S3 09'37-51
Ji7 2*
n* PY « 147 55 nv




T.S OY • ^.3*77 mV




n« POY • -141.60 nv/
ON » 1572*



PQN » 4*1
<xref image="9100USMK.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:05:59.00|40207|0"> image: </xref>
-------
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<xref image="9100USML.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:06:00.00|17737|0"> image: </xref>
-------
APPENDIX B
Parts List
C1:
C2:
C3:
C4:
C5:
D1.D2:
IC1:
IC2:
IC3:
01:
02:
R1.R3:
R2.R7:
R4:
R5:
R6:
R8:
R9:
0.33nF polyester capacitor
0.1 u.F ceramic capacitor
47pF ceramic capacitor
0.22}iF polyester capacitor
0.1 u.F polyester capacitor
1N4003 diode
LM340-T-5 voltage regulator
CA3130 op amp
SN74121 monostable multivibrator
2N3904 transistor
2N4239 transistor
1 .8kQ 1/4 w resistor
1.0 kQ 1/4 w resistor
10kQ trimmer
22kQ 1/4 w resistor
10kQ 1/4 w resistor
470 Q 1/4 w resistor
22 a 1/4 w resistor
<xref image="9100USMM.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:06:01.00|14013|0"> image: </xref>
-------
APPENDIX C

METHANOL-POWERED VOLKSWAGEN TEST VEHICLE
SPECIFICATIONS AND CHANGES TO ACCOMMODATE METHANOL FUEL
Vehicle Item
Engine:

Displacement

Bore

Stroke

Compression ratio

Valvetrain

Basic engine
^T



Main Fuel System;

General




Pump life
Accumulator-maximum
holding pressure

Fuel filter
Fuel distributor




Air sensor

Fuel injectors



Cold-start injectors
Spec i f i c at i on/Change
1.61 liters

8.00 cm

8.00 cm

12.5:1

Overhead camshaft

GTI basic engine - European
high-performance engine to
withstand higher loads - U.S
cylinder head
Bosch K-jetronic CIS fuel
injection with Lambda feedback
control; calibrated for
methanol operation

1 year due to corrosiveness of
methanol; improved insulation
on wiring exposed to fuel

3.0 bar
One-way check valve deleted
because of fuel incompatibility

5.0-5.3 bar system pressure,
calibration optimized for
methanol, material changes for
fuel compatibility

Modified air flow characteristics

Material changes for fuel compat-
ibility; plastic screen replaced
by metal screen

2 injectors, valves pulse for 8
seconds beyond start mode below
16°C (60°F)
<xref image="9100USMN.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:06:02.00|31805|0"> image: </xref>
-------
APPENDIX C (CONT'D)
METHANOL-POWERED VOLKSWAGEN TEST VEHICLE
SPECIFICATIONS AND CHANGES TO ACCOMMODATE METHANOL FUEL
Vehicle Item
Fuel injection wiring

Idle setting
PCV:
Ignition;
Distributor
Standard spark plugs
Transmission;
General
Torque converter ratio
Stall speed
Gear ratios;
1
2
3
Axle
Fuel Tank;
Material
Coating
Seams and fittings
Cap
Fuel
Spec i f i c at i on/Change
Modified to accommodate relays
and thermo-switch
Specific to methanol calibration
PCV valve with calibrated plunger
no orifice
Slightly reduced maximum
centrifugal advance and slightly
modified vacuum advance/retard
characteristics
Bosch W4CC
1981 production automatic 3-speed
2.44
2000-2200 rpm

2.55
1.45
1.00
3.57

Steel
Phosphated steel
Brazed
European neck and locking cap
Neat methanol (Ml00)
<xref image="9100USMO.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:06:03.00|23654|0"> image: </xref>
-------
COMPOSITE TEST RESULTS FROM 2660S-MX13

TEST NUMBER 893480 METHANE MEASURED ? NO METHANOL MPG 5.28
M100.FUEL METHANOL MEASURED ? NO GASOLINE MPG 10.62
OTR TEST PROCEDURE "FACTOR" 2.0105



TEST B < CURRENT TEST RESULTS > < PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/MILE) >
NUMBER A MILES H C CO C02 NOX CH4 NMHC H C CO C02 NOX OMHCE CH30H HCHO
G — — — — — — —
S


893480 1 3.162 47.178148.258 351.41 1.080 -9.999 -9.999 5.554148.264 351.53 1.08161.091••••••-0.00017

TEST NUMBER 893621 METHANE MEASURED ? NO METHANOL MPG 6.13
Ml00.FUEL METHANOL MEASURED ? NO GASOLINE MPG 12.32
OTR TEST PROCEDURE "FACTOR" 2.0105



TEST B < CURRENT TEST RESULTS > < PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/MILE) >
NUMBER A MILES H C CO C02 NOX CH4 NMHC H C CO CO2 NOX OMHCE CH30H HCHO
G
S


893621 1 3.295 32.076 72.000 426.11 1.931 -9.999 -9.999 3.774 72.005 426.27 1.93141.51187.144-0.00018 nj
M
<xref image="9100USMP.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:06:04.00|17373|0"> image: </xref>
-------
BAG BV BAG TEST RESULTS FROM 2660S-MX13

TEST NUMBER 893480
M100.FUEL METHANE MEASURED ? NO
OTR TEST PROCEDURE METHANOL MEASURED ? NO



TEST B < CURRENT TEST RESULTS > < ----- PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/BAG) ------ >
NUMBER A MILES H C CO C02 NOX CH4 NMHC H C CO C02 NOX OMHCE CH30H HCHO
893480 1 3.162149.176468.792 1111.14 3.414 -9.999 -9.999 17.561468.810 1111.54 3. 419******405. 521-0. 00052


TEST NUMBER 893621
M100.FUEL METHANE MEASURED ? NO

OTR TEST PROCEDURE METHANOL MEASURED ? NO





TEST B < CURRENT TEST RESULTS > < ----- PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/BAG) ------ >

NUMBER A MILES H C CO C02 NOX CH4 NMHC H C CO C02 NOX OMHCE CH30H HCHO
893621 1 3.295105.689237.241 1404.04 6.363 -9.999 -9.999 12.434237.257 1404.56 6. 363»»**»»287 . 140-0.00059 ^)
W
25
D
H
X

a


o

§
<xref image="9100USMQ.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:06:06.00|15783|0"> image: </xref>
-------
BAG BV BAG TEST RESULTS FROM 2660S-MX13

TEST NUMBER B93480
Ml 00. FUEL METHANE MEASURED ? NO
OTR TEST PROCEDURE METHANOL MEASURED 7 NO



TEST B < CURRENT TEST RESULTS > < -------- PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/MI) ---------- >
NUMBER A MILES H C CO C02 NOX CH4 NMHC H C CO C02 NOX OMHCE CH30H HCHO


893480 1 3.162 47.178148.258 351.41 1.080 -3.162 -3.162 5.554148.264 351.53 1.08161.091128.248-0.00017

TEST NUMBER 893621
Ml 00. FUEL METHANE MEASURED ? NO
OTR TEST PROCEDURE METHANOL MEASURED 7 NO



TEST B < CURRENT TEST RESULTS > < -------- PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/MI) ---------- >
NUMBER A MILES H C CO C02 NOX CH4 NMHC H C CO C02 NOX OMHCE CH30H HCHO


893621 1 3.295 32.076 72.000 426.11 1.931 -3.035 -3.035 3.774 72.005 426.27 1.93141.511 87.144-0.00018
PI
2
D
M
X
o
o
o
z
<xref image="9100USMR.TIF|V3|2011:04:14:23:06:07.00|15663|0"> image: </xref>

_________________
Komplettera gärna data om dit piggybacksystem här: http://www.editgrid.com/user/aryan/E85_piggyback_system och här viewtopic.php?f=10&t=6352


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