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Intressant rapport med bränsleuppvärmning och aktiv atomatisering efter injektorn.


http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/9100 ... ZyEntry=1#

Citat:
EPA/AA/TDG/93-02
Technical Report
Cold Starting an Alcohol-Fueled Engine
with Ultrasonic Fuel Ato»ization
by



Robert I. Bruetsch

Fakhri J. Hamady
March 1993
NOTICE

Technical Reports do not necessarily represent final EPA
decisions or positions. They are intended to present technical
analysis of! issues using data which are currently available. The
purpose infc-the* release of such reports is to facilitate the
exchange o£ technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments which may form the basis for a final EPA
decision, position, or regulatory action.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Air and Radiation
Office of Mobile Sources
Regulatory Programs and Technology
Technology Development Group
2565 Plymouth Road
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
<xref image="9100RS4K.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:41.00|21684|0"> image: </xref>
-------
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

ANN ARBOR. MICHIGAN 48105
MAY 21 1993 OFFICE OF
AIR AND RADIATION
MEMORANDUM
SUBJECT: Exemption from Peer and Administrative Review


FROM: Karl H. Hellman, Chief
Technology Development Grou


TO: Charles L. Gray, Jr./ Director-?'
Regulatory Programs and Technology^
/

The attached report entitled "Cold Starting an Alcohol-Fueled
Engine with Ultrasonic Fuel Atomization," EPA/AA/TDG/93-02,
presents the test results of an engine modified to be cold started
with the assistance of automatically controlled ultrasonic fuel
atomizers and run on methanol fuel. This report represents the
successful completion of an international cooperative program; the
effective development of improved alcohol fuel cold start
technology by the Japanese government and industry, and the
associated technical evaluation by the U.S. government.

Since this report is concerned only with the presentation of
data and their analysis and does not involve matters of policy or
regulation, your concurrence is requested to waive administrative
review according to the policy outlined in your directive of April
22, 1982.
Concurr enc^ ^\L^-^J. //^ _ Date :
arles L. Gray, **/• Director, RPT
Noncdncurr ence : _ _ Date :
Charles L. Gray, Jr. , Director, RPT

Attachment

cc: E. Burger, RPT
<xref image="9100RS4L.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:43.00|40131|0"> image: </xref>
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Table of Contents
Page
Number
I. Summary l
II. Introduction 1
III. System Description 1
IV. Starting Procedure 4
V. Test Results 5
VI. Conclusions and Recommendations 9
VII. Acknowledgments 10
VIII.References 10
APPENDIX A - Ultrasonic Atomizer System Location .... A-l
APPENDIX B - Starting Procedure Flow Diagram B-l
APPENDIX C - Engine and Fuel Specifications C-l
<xref image="9100RS4M.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:44.00|13393|0"> image: </xref>
-------
Cold Starting an Alcohol-Fueled Engine
with Ultrasonic Fuel Atomization
I.

A test program was devised at EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel
Emissions Laboratory to evaluate a Tonen ultrasonic fuel atomizer
system on a Honda B20 engine using both M85 (85% methanol, 15%
hydrocarbons) and M100 (neat methanol) fuels to determine whether
cold starting a premixed-charge port injected engine on alcohol
fuels at low ambient temperatures can be improved. [1] Modification
to the engine's intake manifold was performed at the Japanese
Automotive Research Institute (JARI) in cooperation with the New
Energy Development Organization (NEDO) to install heated injectors
in close proximity to the ultrasonic atomizers. The engine is also
equipped with the stock port injector system intact and functional.
Successful M100 cold starts were obtained down to 20°F (-7°C).


II. Introduction

Tonen initially developed the ultrasonic fuel atomizer in the
mid-1980's to investigate the relationships between spark ignition
characteristics and combustion stability in gasoline-fueled race
car engines. After Tonen achieved some success in this development
program, a representative of EPA visited Tonen in November of 1988
to negotiate a cooperative agreement for the development of the
ultrasonic atomizer as a cold start assist device for pre-mixed
charge alcohol-fueled engines.

Since the cooperative agreement involved working with the U.S.
•government, the Tonen Corporation aligned itself with the New
Energy Development Organization (NEDO) and the Japanese Automotive
Research Institute (JARI) to take advantage of the testing
facilities and related research expertise already in existence
within the Japanese government.[2] What resulted was a three year
development program between these Japanese organizations with
periodic meetings to update the EPA on the status of their
progress. At first, it was planned to adapt the ultrasonic
atomizer syatea to a Toyota engine, but ultimately it was decided
to instead, UM a Honda B20 four cylinder engine.


Ill* Svat+M Description

By trial and error, JARI engineers evaluated various different
intake manifold locations to mount two of these atomizers in order
to realize the best possible charge distribution to the four
cylinders, with the minimum amount of distance and wall surface
area between the ultrasonic atomizers and the cylinders. The final
design featured a distance of roughly 6 inches (15 cm) between the
ultrasonic atomizers and a nearly 90° elbow, followed by an
<xref image="9100RS4N.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:47.00|67986|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-2-

approximately 8 inch (20 cm) distance between the elbow and the
cylinders (see Appendix A). This is not exactly an optimum
configuration, but is probably the best geometry given the
constraints of the engine's intake manifold design.

Throughout its development program/ Tonen continued to refine
the design of the ultrasonic atomizer. At first it was merely a
probe which, when energized, vibrated ultrasonically in the intake
air stream between the port fuel injectors and the combustion
chambers. Then the injectors were mounted in the same holder as
the atomizers, such that the fuel stream leaving the injector
became excited by the atomizer before it made its way into the
intake air stream. Next, Tonen fitted the atomizer/injector
assembly with an electrically heated glow plug. Three different
heated atomizer configurations were tested.[3]

The first of these heated atomizer configurations (Type A) is
shown in Figure 1. In this design, the fuel is supplied close to
the base of the glow plug, such that the fuel has to travel the
length of the glow plug before being introduced near the tip of the
ultrasonic atomizer, thereby adding as much heat to the fuel as
possible before exciting it with the atomizer.

The second atomizer configuration tested (Type B) is shown in
Figure 2. In this version, the length of the glow plug is
shortened, and the glow plug is fitted with an insulating shield
and a preheat zone. The fuel is introduced closer to the tip of
the glow plug into the preheat zone, where it first has to travel
back toward the base of the glow plug over a greater surface area
Ultrasonic Atoaiier Design*

01 trasonio Transducer

i Fuel Supplier
Glow Plug
SPRAY

Figure . 1. Type A
Pre-heat zone
Adiabator

Figure 2. Type B
<xref image="9100RS4O.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:48.00|56033|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-3-

to promote heat transfer between the fuel and the hot surface,
before being introduced to the atomizer. This design also shields
the glow plug from being quenched by the direct flow of the fuel
spray.

The third and final heated atomizer configuration (Type C) is
similar to the second version with the addition of stainless steel
beads at the tip of the glow plug (Figure 3). Tonen found that the
addition of these beads provides an additional surface between the
glow plug and the atomizer, which retains heat and transfers it to
the fuel. The improvement in fuel atomization is significant
enough to justify this subtle difference in the design of the
heated injector/atomizer assembly.

The final ultrasonic atomizer system design consists of two of
these Type C glow plug heated injector/atomizer assemblies mounted
on the intake manifold of the Honda B20 engine. The system is
controlled by a Pantos Nippon Denshi Kagaku (NDK) Sofrecs 8604A
Super Intelligent Data Logger/Analyzer with an AU-1208 signal
conditioner. This unit is connected to a switching box with
control of the glow plug heater, ignition and the engine's starter.
Engine control parameters are traced and are monitored on a Pantos
NDK Model LCD-8660 Color Display Unit. Power is supplied to these
units by two Pantos NDK Model AC-8600 Power Supply Units. An
oscilloscope is used to insure that injection events occur
properly. Exhaust mixture concentration is sensed by four lambda
sensors, one in each exhaust bank, and monitored by four Horiba Air
Fuel Ratio Analyzers Model MEXA-l10(lambda).
SPRAY
Pre-h«at zont

Adiabator
Stainltss
Figure 3. Type C Ultrasonic Atomizer Design
<xref image="9100RS4P.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:49.00|51009|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-4-

The engine used for this test program is a 1991 Honda B20,
such as is used in the Honda Prelude, a water cooled in-line four
cylinder engine with a displacement of 2.0L modified for use of
neat methanol (M100) and methanol/hydrocarbon blends such as
M85.[4] The engine is equipped with four stock port fuel injectors
in addition to the two temperature controlled electrically operated
"cold start" injectors mounted in the ultrasonic atomizer
assemblies. Engine compression ratio is 10.5:1 and rated
horsepower is 135 @ 5800 rpm.


IV. Starting Procedure

Prior to each starting attempt, the battery, an Interstate
Deep Cycle SRM-24 marine battery with 550 cold cranking amps, is
charged at a slow rate overnight until fully charged. The engine
is placed in the cold room and soaked at the desired test
temperature overnight, or until the oil temperature is within + or
- one degree centigrade of the desired test temperature. A flow
chart for the starting procedure employed in this test program is
shown in Appendix B.

Initially, control of injection is selected between the
choices of manual and automatic. The main injection system, based
on the stock Honda gasoline engine maps, was automatically
controlled throughout this test program. The ultrasonic atomizer
injectors were also automatically controlled throughout the test
program, but are based on methanol engine maps developed at JARI.
Also prior to a cranking attempt, the fuel control system is
switched on and the injection triggering mechanism is checked for
proper operation. Injection events are then verified by the
presence of a waveform on the oscilloscope.

The ignition switch is then turned to the on position such
that the glow plug heaters can be energized prior to cranking. The
heaters are thus enabled for the desired glow plug preheat time, a
period of 10 seconds per NEDO recommendation, and if sampling for
emissions, the CVS is turned on and a sampling bag is initiated.
NEDO recommended the 10 second preheat time, because fuel
temperature is not significantly increased after 10 seconds as
shown in Figure 4.

The engine is then cranked by flipping a starter switch and
holding it: in the on position for an increment of 10 seconds and
then letting go. If the engine starts, the cranking time is
recorded, and the engine is run at idle for five minutes to
determine the idle emissions (g/min) until the engine is warmed up.
If the engine does not start, the heater remains on, but the
starter switch is allowed to automatically flip back to the off
position for a waiting period of 10 seconds to protect the starter
from overheating. After 10 seconds, the starter switch is turned
back to the on position to crank the engine for another 10 seconds.
If the engine does not start after six of these cranking and
waiting periods, (i.e., after 120 seconds) it is determined that
<xref image="9100RS4Q.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:51.00|76815|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-5'
100

90

SO

70

60

50

u 40

£ 30
c.
I 20
r^
a
o
iJ
C
'J

aJ
LI
u
c
<D
U
Cl4
10

0
Type-C
Type-B
Type-A
Fuel : M85
Ambient temperature : -30 °C •
10 20
Time (sec)
30
Figure 4. Temperature Profiles of Ultrasonic Atomizers

the engine is not startable at the temperature being tested within
reasonable commercial acceptability.

Once the engine does start, the starter switch is let go (and
automatically flips back to the off position), and the glow plug
heater switch is also turned off. At the end of a test, e.g.,
"after a five minute emission sample is taken, the ignition switch
is turned off, and the STOP button on the fuel control system is
pressed to terminate the logging of engine control parameter data.
V.
Teat Results
The results obtained from this test program are quite similar
to the result* obtained by the JARI engineers in Japan before the
engine wa* shipped to the EPA for evaluation. [5] The heated ultra-
sonic atoadies system helped to improve the cold startability of
both MlOfr and M8S fuels at colder temperatures than normally
observed fro» unassisted engines with only OB injection systems
using these fuels. Th* engine is capable of being cold started on
M100 at temperatures as low as 20T (-7»C) with a glow plug preheat
time of 30 seconds. The engine is capable of being cold started on
M85 without the ultrasonic atomizer system at ambient temperatures
lower than are capable of being obtained in EPA's current cold room
test facility.

The engine was initially tested on 11.8 RVP M85 fuel at 50»F
(10°C). Startup was almost instantaneous, with a required cranking
<xref image="9100RS4R.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:52.00|45174|0"> image: </xref>
-------
time of only 1.1 second. The cold engine idle speed was 1620 rpm,
though after five minutes of operation, this speed was reduced to
1340 rpm. Average lambda values in the four exhaust runners were
0.84, and were quite stable except for cylinder No. 1 which was
somewhat leaner at 0.94. Only the OEM injectors were required to
start the engine. The ultrasonic atomizor injection system was not
required, nor was the glow plug preheater. Figure 5 shows both the
JARI and the EPA test results on both M85 and M100.

Testing continued on M85 fuel, and cold starting was success-
ful at 32°F (0°C), 15°F (-10°C), and 9°F (-13eC) . The results
closely matched the results obtained at the JARI. Cranking time
increased to 3.5 seconds at the 9°F (-13°C) test temperature, and
idle engine speeds increased to 1800 rpm initially and 1400 rpm
after 5 minutes of stabilizing. Average lambda values were similar
to the 50°F (10°C) test except during the 9«F (-13«C) test where
lambda values averaged a relatively rich 0.71, with cylinder No. l
somewhat leaner at 0.77. Again, only the OEM injection system was
required to start the engine. The cold start injectors, atomizers
and preheaters were not required for any test using M85 fuel within
the lower temperature limit of the cold room used in this test
program.

The engine oil and coolant were checked between each test, and
the battery was fully charged before each starting attempt. After
completing the MBS evaluations, the engine's fuel was drained and
testing was initiated on M100 fuel.

The M100 fuel used has an RVP of 4.6 psi. The first test on
M100 was performed at 50°F (10°C). Testing with M100 required the
use of not only the OEM injectors, but also the heated cold start
atomized fuel injectors. Preheat time at this temperature was 10
.seconds. Cranking time to start was 5.5 seconds, and initial
engine speed was 1622 rpm. Lambda values with M100 were leaner
than with M85, and averaged 0.96. Cylinder No. 1 demonstrated a
lambda value of 1.1. This cylinder, due to the placement of the
two ultrasonic atomizers, was consistently the leanest throughout
all tests of both fuels.

The cold room temperature was cooled to 20°F (-7°C), and a
cold start attempt was made with the use of the ultrasonic atomizer
fuel injectors and the same glow plug preheat time of 10 seconds.
The engine would not start under these conditions under the
prescribed-cranking procedure. This same result occurred in the
JARI tests, and it was decided to lengthen the glow plug preheat
time before attempting another 20°F (-7°C) or colder test.

First, however, a test was run at 32°F (0°C) in an effort to
correlate data at other points along the curves already generated
at the JARI laboratory. The engine started with the ultrasonic
injectors and the 10 second glow plug preheat time after 28 seconds
of cranking. Engine speed was slightly higher than observed during
the 50°F (10°C) test, with an initial speed of 1650 rpm and a
stabilized speed of 1400 rpm after 5 minutes.
<xref image="9100RS4S.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:54.00|79141|0"> image: </xref>
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-7-
60
50
o
0)
w
0)
s
£
e.
cd
• J-.
o
40
30
20
10
M85 —
MI+US
without
heater
EPA results
T M85 OEM
A M100 MI + US
with heater

Hollow symbols
represent JARI
results
M100
MI+US
with heater
(lOsec preheat)
o ,M*
-30
10
-20 -10 0
Temperature (°C)
Figure 5. JARI and EPA Engine Cold Startability
Results on M85 and Ml00
20
<xref image="9100RS4T.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:55.00|20282|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-8-

Two more tests were run at the intermediate temperatures of
40°F (4°C) and 35°F (2°C) with the ultrasonic atomizer injectors
and a glow plug preheat time of 10 seconds. Cranking times for
successful starts were 11 and 14 seconds, respectively. Again, the
results closely matched the results obtained at the JARI
laboratory. However, lambda values, for some unknown reason, were
considerably richer during the 40°F (4°C) test, averaging 0.73
compared with lambda values averaging 0.96 at 35°F (2°C). This
anomaly, along with the highly variable meter readings, caused some
skepticism with regard to the accuracy of the air/fuel ratio
measurements. During engine operation after these two successful
cold starts, engine speed was initially about 1700 to 1775 rpm, and
1265 to 1400 rpm after 5 minutes.

The test cell was then cooled to 25°F (-4°C) and the lower
limit of cold startability of the ultrasonic atomizer system on
M100 was again investigated. This time the atomizer injectors were
used with a glow plug heatup time of 30 seconds instead of only 10
seconds. Though NEDO found that the fuel temperature does not
increase measureably after 10 seconds, it was decided to evaluate
whether a longer preheat time added more heat to the system for
improved cold start performance. The engine started after 49
seconds of cranking. Lambda values were relatively lean, and
averaged near stoichiometric levels of 0.96. Engine speed was
elevated, however, with an initial post startup measurement of 2200
rpm and a stabilized level of over 1600 rpm after 5 minutes.

Another 20°F (-7°C) start attempt was made, this time with an
extended glow plug preheat time. The preheat time in this case was
30 seconds as in the successful 25°F (-4°C) test. By the
prescribed starting procedure, the engine did not start within the
acceptable cranking time limit. After an additional waiting period
with the heater still on, the engine finally did start, but this
'test would be considered a "no start1* condition within the
prescribed starting procedure or within reasonable commercial
acceptability. No emission samples were measured following the
successful 20°F (-7°C) N100 test, though levels would be expected
to be high given the excessive cranking time.

During: most other successful cold starts on either M85 or
M100, emissions were sampled as the engine warmed up under idle
condition*; for a period of five minutes starting with the initial
cranking period (i.e., coincident with turning the starter switch
on) and ending five minutes later. As a result, the emissions of
tests with short cranking times are generally less than those of
tests with long cranking times, because a larger percentage of the
emissions are collected while the engine is running and fuel is
being burned more completely. Table 1 shows the post-start idle
emissions of the test engine. Data points are not included in
Table 1 for the successful cold starts on N85 at 50°F (10°C) and on
M100 at 20°F (-7°C), because emissions were not sampled during
these tests. The emissions of the engine on both fuels are, as
expected, higher, and the cranking times are longer, at colder
temperatures. .
<xref image="9100RS4U.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:57.00|86197|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-9-
Table i

Honda B20 Cold start Idle Emissions (g/min)
Fuel
Temp (°F)
NOX
HC"
C02
CO
M85
32
0.03
0.67
59
22.8
15
0.03
1.42
65
29.6
9
0.04
1.65
66
31.3
M100
50
0.02
0.32
60
6.3
40
0.03
0.40
61
5.3
35
0.04
0.65
70
7.9
32
0.04
1.70
65
11.3
25
0.11
1.85
81
9.8
21*
-
-
-
-
**
Engine did not start at 21°F on M100 with a 10 second preheat
time. No emission samples were obtained.

HC emissions not adjusted for methanol fuel. Exhaust HC
density assumed equal to that of gasoline = 16.33 g/ft3.
VI • Conclusions and
Successful cold starts on M100 fuel with a heated ultrasonic
fuel atomizer system were obtained down to 20 °F (-7°) with a 30
second glow plug preheat period. With only the NEOO recommended 10
second preheat time, successful M100 cold starts were obtained at
temperatures as low as 32°F (0°C) .

Cold starting the engine on M85 does not require the use of
the ultrasonic atomizer system or the glow plug heater at
'-temperatures as low as 9°F, or the lower limit of the EPA cold test
facility utilized in this test program. Successful cold starts
were obtained on N85 with less cranking time than is required with
only the stock fuel injection system.

EPA and JARI data of measured cranking times on N100 with the
heated ultrasonic atomizer system, and on M85 with and without the
ultrasonic atomizer and the glow plug heater, are in close
agreement » •-
---".•^
T--*W
The cold start performance on M100 is similar to results
obtained with long duration spark systems evaluated previously at
the EPA. [6]

The proximity of the ultrasonic atomizer system to the engine
combustion chambers is not optimum. In particular, the near 90°
elbow in the intake manifold makes it difficult for finely atomized
fuel to reach the combustion chambers without condensing on the
manifold wall and generating larger fuel droplets, especially at
low ambient temperatures.
<xref image="9100RS4V.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:52:58.00|54250|0"> image: </xref>
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-10-

Tonen engineers investigated the optimum glow plug preheat
time, and found very little benefit in fuel temperature increase is
obtained with preheat times longer than 10 seconds. Heat retention
of the fuel (and M100 cold start performance) was found to improve
with glow plug preheat times of up to 30 seconds, but the detriment
to glow plug durability of these extended preheat times is unknown.

EPA was not able to test the effects of variation in ignition
timing, ignition duration, ignition energy, or injection quantity
on cold start performance of M85 and M100 with the ultrasonic
atomizer system. These parameters were fixed throughout this
evaluation program.

The accuracy of relative air fuel ratio measurements was not
determined and is, therefore, unknown.

Post cold start idle emissions of the Honda B20 engine
increase with increased cranking time and decreasing ambient
temperature.

Cold start performance of an alcohol-fueled engine equipped
with the ultrasonic fuel atomizer system in combination with long
duration spark or plasma ignition systems, and perhaps variable
control of ignition and injection parameters, is likely to promote
improved alcohol engine cold start performance, and is worthy of
further investigation.(7]


VII. Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the efforts of NEDO, JARI, and
Tonen managers and engineers for providing system development,
operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting functions throughout
this international cooperative development program.

The authors also thank technicians Jim Garvey, Steve Halfyard,
and craftsman Lenny Kocher for assisting with the test program.


VIII.References

1. BruetscKr Robert I., and Fakhri J. Hamady, "Test Plan for Cold
Start Evaluation of NEDO-Supplied Methanol Engine," EPA/OAR/
OMS/RPT/TDGv memorandum to Charles L. Gray, Ann Arbor, MI, December
22, 1992.

2. Iwai, Nobuo, Kiiechi Nagai, Hitoshi Yasuda, Tadashi Ayusawa,
and Yong Kil Kim, "A Study on Cold Start ability and Mixture
Formation of High-Percentage Methanol Blends," SAE Paper 880044,
presented at the International Congress and Exposition, Detroit,
MI, February 29 - March 4, 1988.

3. Hosogai, Daijiro, overhead presentation in meeting at EPA's
National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI,
<xref image="9100RS4W.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:00.00|61537|0"> image: </xref>
-------
-11-

Corporate Research and Development Laboratory, Tonen Corporation,
Iruma-Gun, Saitama, Japan, January 7, 1993.

4. "1991 Test car List — Passenger Cars," U.S. EPA/OAR/OMS,
Certification Division, Ann Arbor, MI, September 6, 1990.

5. Ivai, Nobuo, handout presentation in meeting at EPA's National
Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, Japan
Automobile Research Institute, Inc., Karima, Tsukuba, Ibaraki,
Japan, January 7, 1993.

6. Bruetsch, Robert I., "Cold Starting a Neat Methanol (M100)
Vehicle with Long Duration Spark Ignition," EPA/AA/CTAB/89-05, June
1989.

7. Gardiner, D. P., V. K. Rao, M. F. Bardon, J. D. Dale, P. R.
Smy, R.F. Haley, J. R. Dawe, "Sub-Zero Cold Starting of a Port-
Injected M100 Engine Using Plasma Jet Ignition and Prompt EGR," SAE
Paper 930331, presented at the International Congress and
Exposition, Detroit, MI, March 1-5, 1993.
<xref image="9100RS4X.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:01.00|23847|0"> image: </xref>
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Appendixes
<xref image="9100RS4Y.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:02.00|1014|0"> image: </xref>
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Appendix A: Ultrasonic Atoaizer Systea Location
<xref image="9100RS4Z.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:03.00|1918|0"> image: </xref>
-------
A-l
Idle control valve
First idle valve
Type C Ultrasonic Atomizers
nounted in locations "B" and "E"
Intake manifold
Equipment location of Ultrasonic Atomizer
<xref image="9100RS50.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:05.00|24734|0"> image: </xref>
-------
A-2
Radiator
Intake
U.S. Injector
Main Injector
Engine
2L,4cyc.
4cyl.SI
Metrtanol
EFI
Exhaust
Trig. Sig.
Boost Pres.
Water Temp.
Starter Sig.
etc.
A/F Analyzer
for detect
combustion
(4ch)
Fuel Inj. Controller
<xref image="9100RS51.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:06.00|9980|0"> image: </xref>
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Appendix B: Starting Procedure Flow Diagram
<xref image="9100RS52.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:07.00|1788|0"> image: </xref>
-------
B-l
Injectlc
n Control Selector
Auto

HMter of U.S. Injector Sw. ON
Engine Start
below 10 sec
king
Check System
Yee
Starter Sw. OFF
_L
J
Heater of U.8. Inlector Sw. OFF
Iq. Sw. OFF
Fuel Control System
| Stop

Test Procedure
<xref image="9100RS53.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:08.00|15303|0"> image: </xref>
-------
Fiji. EVALUATION METHOD FOR COLD STARTABILITY
BATTERY VOLTAGE f

1
CRANKINC
f
fcA A A AA/ULA/^ «
T1
<0~-
• Fi

'AIJSE | yT

I / sufficient Burning
vJU--^
T2
•H.
13
'
w
K>
TIME (SEC)
TEST CYCLE: 10SEC. CRANKING ANPIOSEC PAUSE
f FIRST BURNING TIM E=T1 +T2
I SUFHCIENT BURNING TIME sT1+T3 *- /must be
x 6;
CO sec. C 6 cycle*)
l'f«««lHS TV-OOtl {or
<xref image="9100RS54.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:10.00|17771|0"> image: </xref>
-------
Appendix C: Engin* and Fu«l Specifications
<xref image="9100RS55.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:11.00|1754|0"> image: </xref>
-------
ingine Type
ine output (ps/rpm)
©Displacement
(cc)
©Compression ratio
supply system
Type
Water cooled inline 4 cylinder type
135/5,800
1,958
10.5
Electronically controlled

fuel injection system


Near neat methanol M85
M
V*

M

N
so
o
3
0
1X1
to
01
>- ta
o
m

ru
<xref image="9100RS56.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:12.00|18784|0"> image: </xref>
-------
SW UfXHZHC AB9 MARXRXU0 CO.
CUSTOM PRODUCTS GR0UF

C-2
CUSTOMER: SUN 1015150 & MARKETING CO.
P.O. NO.: PH 2/9/90
PRODUCT: SOT MS*
DATX SHIPWD: 2/9/90

SATCHNO.: 9001033
SPXC1FICATIONS

PRODUCT: M83 (83% MTOANOt / 13% GASOLZ5I)
Gr«viey, 'API, ASTM 0287
Specific Grcriey, «0«/«0*
toy Volua*
Mellat, by VoluM,
Hydrocarbon Coopocieioa, Vol.
ASTM D1319 ATOMtie*
R«td V«por Pt««»ur«, p«i
ASTM D323 Autom»c»d
DiJtilUtlott iMidUft. .ASTM D86
L**d( Orgaaie f/litor,
: ASTM 03229, 02599
Sulfur, We. %, ASTM D2«22
Pho«pboruaf f/litar, ASTM D3231
W«c«. by Voluao, AJTM 1203
Acidity, V€.%, ASTM OUU
ToeAl Chloride Concoac, Orgxnio
And Inorpnto* ASTM 03120
Hydrofra. W»fe %\ ASTM 03343
CAxboa,
47.4
0.7909
84.0
RAport
Report
83 ±1
30. S

12.0
1.0

0.000
0.0009
0.0002
0.0493
Cl««r/Roaof«aou«
0.0013

0.0002
12.43
43.42
43.29
25-40%

7.0-13.0
1.0% MAX.

.003 MAX.
.01 MAX.
.0002 MAX.
0.3% MAX.
CloAr/Boaogonou*
0.003% MAX.

.0002% MAX.
Report
Ropore
Sunoco
rrooucw
2,344716*4
900BAC8OAS
P«« 21* **71643
Cuatoa
<xref image="9100RS57.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:15.00|32816|0"> image: </xref>
-------
INTERSTflTE OdlCflL. TO

TQi 412 981 3363



C-3
13136684573 P. 02


OCT 10. 1991 6144AM P.0t
METHANOL

Mettanc/ /t • char, mfawhto alcohol with 9 mild odor. Auctions
foe/weft oxftfofto dohydrogonatlon to form formoldthydo and add
catalyzed addition to /sodufyfent to form the octon* enhancer MTSf.
high ntto of oxygw to C9rt)on9l9orwK$ In wwllwtaolvtnt proportion
SyrvryrMMelW alcohol, Wood akohol
99.99
190 miry
LYON 5204
einanot wf aorn
LVQVS204
^S.
OJXmax
ASTM D1364
^ASTM 01613
0.003 mat
. w/%
LYON 5195
Passes
UON
6
&$VimiQn Rings, ^C
HrtmcartoratvM9C&&v
1722
Nor> vfa»aa>. wi%
0.00 mar
ASTM
ASTM
1296
Time,
. SOmin
ASTMD1383
CNorkm
<0.5<aom
yONi
Aor?
LVONt
<0.fflcm
StHPFINBifFOMt/SnOltJ
1,
4.
true*.
SAffTYAKOHAHOim:
«tf* 0*9*

Wd 0MC «OI
<xref image="9100RS58.TIF|V3|2011:01:26:04:53:35.00|76875|0"> image: </xref>
-------

_________________
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InläggPostat: sön 12-12-16 15:03 
Offline

Blev medlem: ons 07-10-10 17:33
Inlägg: 86
Ort: Tallinn, ESTONIA
Maybe some of you remember what I told few years ago about fuel droplet size affecting ethanol cold start.
We had setup where gasoline was injected into engine intake manifold through small volume wide angle full cone misting/fogging nozzle, during cold cranking. We used one setup with gear pump at pressure about 4 bar and another with vibration pump (so called ULKA pump from expresso coffe machine) at pressure close to 20 bar. At 20 bar fluid pressure, nozzle gave very fine fog like cloud at open space and at 4 bar more like mist with droplets. When testing these setupes at real world conditions 20 bar version gave much better cold start results. Cranking time was shorter and less attemptes to start engine where needed.


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